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A HISTORY
OF
PHILOSOPHY
A HISTORY
OF
PHILOSOPHY
VOLUME
II
Medieval Philosophy
Frederick Copleston, S.J.
~
IMAGE BOOKS
DOUBLEDAY
New York London Toronto Sydney Auckland
-
CONTENTS
Chapter
I.
INTRODUCTION
Page
1
AN
IMAGE BOOK
PUBLISHED BY DOUBLEDAY
a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
1540 Broadway, New York, New York 10036
PART I
PRE-MEDIAEVAL INFLUENCE&
II.
THE PATRISTIC PERIOD
Christianity and Greek philosophy-Greek Apologists
(A ristides, St. Justin Martyr, Tatian. Athenagoras,
Theophilus)-Gnosticism and writers against Gnosticism
(St. Irenaeus. Hippolytus)-Latin Apologists (Minucius
Felix, Tertullian. Arnobius. Lactantius)-Catechetical
School of Alexandria (Clement, Origen)-Greek Fathers
(St. Basil, Eusebius. St. Gregory of Nyssa)-Latin
Fathers (St. Ambrose)-St. John Damascene-Summary.
III.
ST. AUGUSTINE-I
Life and writings-St. Augustine and Philosophy.
IV. ST. AUGUSTINE-II: KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge with a view to beatitude-Against scepticism
_Experiential knowledge-Nature of sensation-Divine
ideas-Illumination and Abstraction.
V. ST. AUGUSTINE-III: GOD .
Proof of God from eternal truths-Proofs from creatures
and from universal consent-The various proofs as stages
in one process-Attributes of God-Exemplarism.
VI. ST. AUGUSTINE-IV: THE WORLD
Free creation out of
nothing-Matter-Rationes seminales
-Numbers-Soul and body-Immortality-Origin of
soul.
VII. ST. AUGUSTINE-V: MORAL THEORY
Happiness and God-Freedom and Obligation-Need of
grace-Evil-the two Cities.
VIII. ST. AUGUSTINE-VI: THE STATE
The State and the City of Babylon not identical-The
pagan State does not embody true justice-Church
superior to State.
IX.
THE PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS
Writings and author-Affirmative way-Negative way-
Neo-Platonic interpretation of Trinity-Ambiguous teach-
ing on creation-Problem of evil-Orthodoxy or
un~­
thodoxy?
13
IMAGE, DOUBLEDAY, and the portrayal of a deer drinking from
a stream are trademarks of Doubleday, a division of Bantam
Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
First Image Books edition of Volume II of
A History ofPhilosophy
published 1962
by special arrangement with The Newman Press.
This Image edition published April 1993
51
De
Licentia Superiorum Ordinis:
Martinus D'Arcy, S.J., Praep. Provo Ang!iae
Nihil Obstat:
T. Corbishley, S.J. Censor Deputatus
Imprimatur:
Joseph, Archiepiscopus BirmiDgamiensis Die 24 Aprilis 1948
68
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Copleston, Frederick Charles.
A history of philosophy / Frederick Copleston.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes..
Contents:
V.
1.
Greece and Rome-v. 2. Augustine to Scotus-v.
3. Middle Ages and early Renaissance.
1.
Philosophy, Ancient. 2. Philosophy, Medieval. 3. Philosophy,
Renaissance.
I.
Title.
B72.C62 1993
190-dc20 92-34997
CIP
Volume II copyright 1950 by Frederick Copleston
ISBN 0-385-46844-X
3 5 798 642
All Rights Reserved
74
81
9
1
X.
BOETHIUS. CASSIODORUS. ISIDORE
101
Boethius's transmission of Aristotelian ideas-Natural
theology-Influence on Middle Ages-Cassiodorus on the
seven liberal arts and the spirituality of the soul-
Isidore's
Etymologies
and
Senlences.
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Chaplet'
XI. THE CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE.
Charlemagne-Alcuin and the Palatine School-Other
schools, curriculum, libraries-Rhabanus Maurus.
PART IV
ISLAMIC AND JEWISH PHILOSOPHY TRANSLATIONS
Claapler
XIX. ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY
Reasons for discussing Islamic philosophy-Origins of
Islamic philosophy- AUarabi - Avicenna- Averroes-
Dante and the Arabian philosophers.
XX. JEWISH PHILOSOPHY .
The Cabala-Avicebron-Maimonides.
P."
186
XII. JOHN SCOTUS ERIUGENA-I
Life and works.
1I2
201
XIII. JOHN SCOTUS ERIUGENA-II
1I6
XXI. THE TRANSLATIONS
205
Nature-God and creation-Knowledge of God by affir-
mativeand negative ways; inapplicability of categories
to God-How, then, can God be said to have made the
world?-Divine Ideas in the Word-Creatures as partici-
pations and theophanies; creatures are in God-Man's
nature-Return of all things to God-Eternal punish-
ment in light of cosmic return-Interpretation of John
Scotus's system.
The translated works-Transl_tions from Greek and from
Arabic-Effects of translations and opposition to Aris-
totelianism.
PART
V
THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
XXII, INTRODUCTION
212
PART III
THE TENTH, ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH CENTURIES
XIV. THE PROBLEM OF UNIVERSALS
136
The University of Paris-Universities closed and privi-
leged corporations-Curriculum-Religious Orders at
Paris-Currents of thought in the thirteenth century.
XXIII. WILLIAM OF AUVERGNE
218
Situation following death of Charlemagne-Origin of dis-
cussion in texts of Porphyry and Boethius-Importance
of the problem-Exaggerated realism-Roscelin's 'nomi-
nalism'-St. Peter Damian's attitude to dialectic-
William of Champeaux-Abelard-Gilbert de
la
Porr~
and John of Salisbury-Hugh of St. Victor-St. Thomas
Aquinas.
Reasons for treating of William of Auvergne-Cod and
creatures; essence and existencfr-Creation by God
directly and in time-Proofs of God's existence-Hylo-
morphism-The soul-Knowledge-William of Auvergne
a transition-thinker.
XXIV. ROBERT GROSSETESTE AND ALEXANDER OF HALES 228
(a) Robert Grosseteste's life and writings-Doctrine of
light-God and creatures-Doctrine of truth and of illu-
mination.
(6) Alexander of Hales's attitude to philosophy-Proofs
of God's existence-The divine attributes-Comp08ition
in creatures-Soul, intellect, will-Spirit of Alexander's
philosophy.
XXV, ST. BONAVENTURE-I
XV. ST. ANSELM OF CANTERBURY
156
St. Anselm as philosopher-Proofs of God's existence in
the
Monoiocium-The
proof of God's existence in the
Prosiocium-Idea
of truth and other Augustinian elements
in St. Anselm's thought.
XVI. THE SCHOOL OF CHARTRES .
166
240
Universalism of Paris, and systematisation of sciences in
twelfth century-Regionalism, humanism-Platonism of
Chartres-Hylomorphism at Chartres-Prima
facie
pan-
theism-John of Salisbury's political theory.
Life and works-Spirit-Theology and philosophy-
Attitude to Aristotelianism.
XXVI. ST. BONAVENTURE-II: GoD'S EXISTENCE
250
Spirit of Bonaventure's proofs of God's existence-
Proofs from sensible world-A
priari
knowledge of God
-The Anselmian argument-Argument from truth.
XXVII. ST. BONAVENTURE-III: RELATION OF CREATURES
TO
GoD
XVII. THE SCHOOL OF ST. VICTOR
175
Hugh of St. Victor; proofs of God's existence, faith,
mysticism-Richard of St. Victor; proofs of God's exis-
tence-Godfrey of St. Victor and Walter of St. Victor.
25
8
XVIII. DUALISTS AND PANTHEISTS
183
Exemplarism-The divine knowledge-Impossibility of
creation from eternity-Errors which follow from denial
of exemplarism and creation-Likeness of creatures to
God, an&logy-II
this
world the best possible world?
Albigensians and Cathari-Amalric of Bene--David of
Oinant.
PART II
THE CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Chapter
XXVIII. ST. BONAVENTURE-IV: THE MATERIAL CREATION
Hylomorphic composition in all creatures-Individuation
-Light-·-Plurahty of
forms-Rahones semlnales.
Cllapur
XXXVII. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-VII: PSYCHOLOGY
One substantial form in man-The powers of the soul-
The interior senses-Free will-The noblest faculty-
Immortality-The active and passive intellects are not
numerically the same in all men.
Pag,
375
XXIX. ST. BONAVENTURE-V: THE HUMAN SOUL
Unity of human soul-Relation of soul to
body~Immor­
talityof the human
soul-Fal~lty
of ;\verrOlsbc mono-
psychism-Knowledge of sensible o.bJects
an~
of first
logical principles-Knowledge of spmtual realities-illu-
mination-The soul's ascent to God-Bonaventure as
philosopher of the Christian life.
XXXVIII. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-VIII: KNOWLEDGE
'Theory of knowledge' in St. Thomas-The process of
knowledge; knowledge of the universal and of the parti-
cular-The soul's knowledge of itself-The possibility of
metaphysics.
XXXIX. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-IX: MORAL THEORY.
Eudaemonism-The vision of God-Good and bad-The
virtues-The natural law-The eternal law and the
foundation of morality in God-Natural virtues recognised
by St. Thomas which were not recognised by Aristotle;
the virtue of religion.
XXX. ST. ALBERT THE GREAT
Life and intellectual activity-Philosophy and theology
-God-·Creation-The soul-Reputation and importance
of St. Albert.
293
XXXI. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-I
Life-Works-Mode of exposing St. Thomas's philosophy
--The spirit of St. Thomas's philosophy.
302
XL. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-X: POLITICAL THEORY
St. Thomas and Aristotle-The natural origin of human
society and government-Human society and political
authority willed by God-Church and State-Individual
and State - Law - Sovereignty - Constitutions - St.
Thomas's political theory an integral part of his total
system.
Note on St. Thomas's aesthetic theory.
412
XXXII. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-II: PHILOSOPHY AND
THEOLOGY
Distinction betwcpn philosophy and theology-Moral
necessity of revelation-Incompatibility of
fait~
and
science in the same mind concernmg the same obJect-
Natural end and supernatural end-St. Thomas and St.
Bonaventure-St. Thomas as 'innovator'.
3
12
XLI. ST. THOMAS AND ARISTOTLE: CONTROVERSIES
St. Thomas's utilisation of Aristotle-Non-Aristotelian
elements in Thomism-Latent tensions in the Thomist
synthesis-Opposition to Thomist 'novelties'.
XXXIII. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-III: PRINCIPLES OF CREATED
BEING
3~
Reasons for starting with corporeal being-Hylomorphism
-Rejection of
rationes
semina!es-Rejection of. plurality
of substantial forms-RestTictlOn of hylomorphlc compo-
sition to corporeal substances-Potentiality and act-
Essence and existence.
XLII. LATIN AVERROISM: SIGER OF BRABANT
435
Tenets of the 'Latin Averroists'-Siger of Brabant-
Dante and Siger of Brabant-Opposition to Averroism;
condemnations.
XXXIV. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-IV: PROOFS OF GOD'S
EXISTENCE
336
XLIII. FRANCISCAN THINKERS
442
Roger Bacon, life and works-Philosophy of Roger Bacon
-Matthew of Aquasparta-Peter John Olivi-Roger
Marston-Richard of Middleton-Raymond Lull.
Need of proof-St. Anselm's argument-Possibility of
proof-The first three proofs-The fourth proof-The
proof from finality-The 'third way' fundamental.
347
XLIV. GILES OF ROME AND HENRY OF GHENT
460
XXXV. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-V: GOD'S NATURE
(a) Giles of Rome.
Life and works-The independence of
Giles as a thinker-Essence and existence-Form and
matter; soul and body-Political theory.
(b) Henry of Ghent.
Life and works-Eclecticism, illus-
trated by doctrines of illumination and innatism-Idea
of metaphysics-Essence and existence-Proofs of God's
existence-General spirit and significance of Henry's
philosophy.
The negative way-The affirmative way-Analogy-
Types of analogy-A difficulty-The
di~ine
ideas-No
real distinction between the divine attributes-God as
existence itself.
XXXVI. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-VI: CREATION
363
Creation out of nothing-God alone can create-God
created freely-The motive of creation-Impossibility of
creation from eternity has not been demollstrated-Could
God create an actually infinite multitude?-Divine omni-
potence-The problem of evil.
XLV. SCOTus-I
476
Life-Works-Spirit of Scotus's philosophy.
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