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Frits Kalshoven and Liesbeth Zegveld
CONSTRAINTS
ON THE
WAGING
OF
WAR
An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law
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T
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Design: Strategic Communications SA
Original: English
March 2001
Produced with environment-friendly materials
I must retrace my steps, and must deprive those who wage
war of nearly all the privileges which I seemed to grant, yet did
not grant to them. For when I first set out to explain this part of
the law of nations I bore witness that many things are said to be

lawful

or

permissible

for the reason that they are done with
impunity, in part also because coactive tribunals lend to them
their authority; things which nevertheless, either deviate from
the rule of right (whether this has any basis in law strictly so
called, or in the admonitions of other virtues), or at any rate
may be omitted on higher grounds and with greater praise
among good men.
Grotius: De jure belli ac pacis
Book III, Chapter X, Section I.1.
(English translation: Francis G. Kelsey, Oxford, 1925).
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C
ONTENTS
PREFACE
........................................................... 7
CHAPTER I
CHAPTER II
CHAPTER III
3.1 Combatants ............................................... 40
3.2 Means of warfare .......................................... 41
3.3 Methods of warfare ........................................ 44
3.4 Military objectives and protection of the civilian population 44
3.5 Nuclear weapons .......................................... 47
3.6 Cultural property .......................................... 48
4.1 Protected persons ......................................... 51
4.2 Principle of protection ..................................... 53
4
C
ONSTRAINTSONTHE
W
AGINGOF
W
AR
4.6a General protection of populations against
certain consequences of war ............................... 62
4.6b Provisions common to the territory of parties to the conflict
and to occupied territory ................................... 63
III 5
Implementation and enforcement ................................. 70
CHAPTER IV
1.3a Qualification as

armed force

and

combatant

:
general rules ............................................... 87
1.3b The individual obligation of the combatant
to distinguish himself from civilians ........................ 88
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ONTENTS
5
1.5e Prohibition of attacks against the civilian population
and civilian objects ........................................ 102
1.8 Treatment of persons in the power of a party
to the conflict ............................................. 128
3.5a Activities of the Red Cross and Red Crescent
and other humanitarian organisations ...................... 151
3.5b International activities for the promotion
of international humanitarian law .......................... 152
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